Fos haay

z Net os. x , f. 4 a Ps % f Fi ' fw t i yi * i, a 3 \ i ' 5 é a s - aa Ss - e . . 4 ® > r * 5 al . " * p) / x ,





PRIVATE el dot SSB Lot




“a =

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by GEORGE P. REED, in the Clerk’s Office of the District Court for the District of Massachusetts.

Ec} Two editions of this work are issued— one, of about 300 pages, including songs with words arranged for two and three voices the other of about 200 pages, without the songs. The last mentioned

is designed for adult schools, to be used in connection with some collection of church music.




The principal design of this work is, to furnish a thorough course of theoretical and practical instruction in vocal music, with a sufficient number of exercises. to enable the teacher to dispense with the use of a black ‘board, except for illustration. For this pur- pose, besides the usual number of rules and songs which are commonly found in works of this kind, it contains more than five hundred exercises and solfeggios, (songs without

words, 1..e. to be sung with syllables,) vary-



ing from four measures, to three pages in length, and in point of difficulty, from the easiest to the most difficult rhythmic and me-

One hundred of. the

solfeggios are popular airs arranged for three

lodic combinations.

voices, forming lessons at once agreeable and useful. |

The book is believed to include everything © necessary to make it a valuable text-book for schools and classes in which music is thor-

oughly and systematically taught.



ELEMENTARY PrinctpuEes. The order in which _the elementary principles are arranged, differs somewhat from the usual one, but is still, it is believed, perfectly natural and pro- gressive: Though these are doubtless susceptible of improvement, yet the author has not attempted to change them, because it is intended that the explanations and questions shall be made in the teach- er’s own language, without regard. to those which are printed.

The printed explanations are not to be studied by the pupils ; they’

merely suffice to show the subject of each set or chapter of exer- cises, although they may also serve as useful references for the learners, and as guides to the teacher. They are not made sufli- ciently plain to be understood without'a teacher. Teachers using this work should be already acquainted with the Pestalozzian method as’ laid down, fully, in Mason’s Manual, or; briefly; in most of the recently published collections of Church Music. The exercises in this part-of the book are very easy, and in general do not exceed four or five measures in length. They are, how- ever, believed to be sufficient to give a practical knowledge of the principles they are designed to illustrate, while in the vocal exercises, (pp. 79 and 199,) and in the solfege ios, (pp. 85,) longer, more interesting, and more difficult lessons, may be found in abundance. -

INTERVALS, PAGE 77. For want of room,’ extended exer- cises on intervals have not been introduced. On pages 77 and 78, a short example of each is given; which should be practised, first

with syllables, afterwards with Ja or some other syllable, and

lastly with words. Being in the key of C they are rather high, but they may be transposed, if desirable, to the key of A or G

The terms ‘and expressions are those, im common use.;

VocauL ExERcIsres, PAGE 79. These are exercises for ac- quiring rapidity of utterance, and smoothness and flexibility of voice. ‘They should be practised at each lesson. No. 1 may be

‘introduced. as early as the first meeting of a class; and the others

as soon afterwards as possible.

After they are all learned, it

would be well to commence every lesson, by singing through the six pages, continuing the practice even through the fiole course.

As it.cannot be supposed that the members of a class can at first read the notes, the above direction implies, of « course, that they

“must be ietaed by rote.

SoLfre@aios, PAGE 85. The definition of the word Solfexeio is, ‘a musical composition without words, designed as an exercise in reading music.’ This is the sole design of the exercises which commence on page 85. Teachers generally agree that it is highly desirable for singers to become expert in applying the syllables, as the quickest method to learn to read music well. Learners, especially the young, are often averse to performing the mental labor necessary for acquiring this ability, and are more so, if the exercises they are required to practise are of an uninteresting kind. A popularair, or a marked melody, forms the basis of each of these solfeggios. Experience shows that learners, old and young, are much pleased with such airs,,and are willing to take more pains to learn them, than they are to learn exercises destitute of melo-

-dy., As these airs are.without werds, they will at once see, that

they must learn to sing them by syllable, or not at all. In order better to adapt this work for Female Seminaries and the older classes in Juvenile Singing Schools, all the Solfeggios are arranged for first and second treble and alto voices, although in many instances one or more parts are


“written with the base clef, that the'.pupils may become.equally familiar with that clef... In: classes. composed of ladies and gen- tlemen, the solfeggios can be sung in one. of several ways, at the discretion of the teacher. gentlemen one ; the ladies one, the gentlemen two ; the ladies alone in three parts ; the gentlemen alone in. three parts; the treble and high tenor the first part, the second.treble and low tenor or high base'the second part, and thealtoand base, the third part, etc. etc. The best effect will probably be produced when only la- dies:sing, but in the other cases the Solfeggios will be equally use- ful as exercises in reading musicgg— In some Schools it will doubt- less not be possible always to sustain the three parts. In such cases one may be omitted. Sometimes it may even be necessary to have the whole class always sing the same part: The melody, in the solfeggios, will always form a, useful exercise even when sung alone, and in the most of the pieces, the third part may-be omitted, without seriously injuring the effect. —It may be well to remark, that these exercises have -been arranged in the manner that will make them most useful for learning to read music, and that

even some of the strict rules of musical composition, have been

sacrificed to this one object. For this purpose, algo, the SOLFEGGIOS MARKED * in the index, have been arranged: in such a way that no air, will be apparent, unless.all of the parts are sung, and by voices of the same pitch, i. e. by ladies’ voices alone, or by gentlemen’s voices alone. To give them their proper effect, the parts should be equally balanced, both as it regards strength and quality of voice. When this is done, the melody

will be distinctly heard, while, a previous acquaintance with it

will be of no assistance to the performer.

VOCAL EXERCISES, PAGE 199. Some of these exercises are of the same nature as those commencing on page 79, and may

The ladies) may. sing two. parts, the |

be used m connection with them. ‘The most of them, however, are exercises in dificult rhythmic and melodic combinations, each of which will probably require much practice. After a class have

sufficiently advanced to sing them understandingly, a short time

at. each lesson spent upon these exercises, will be. very useful in enabling them to surmount such difficulties. When the pupils are perfectly familiar with the exercises which commence on page 79, it may be well to practise them with the syllables ‘la,’ ‘ah,’ or ‘ah-men.’ ‘The first syllable of a group may also be. used for all the notes composing that group.

Sones, PAGE 211. These songs, like the solfeggios, are ar- ranged for female voices, and+are mostly from the German. Among them are several for children and a few for various occa- sions ina seminary ; but the majority belong to that tribe of songs called im German, VoLKsLInpmR, (songs of the people,) which seem to be better suited to the seminary and fireside, ‘than - more difficult ones. A few common hymn tunes and chants are also'added, the words of which are suitable-for the opening or closing services of school. a

Course or Instruction. The following brief outline, will, perhaps, more clearly show the manner in which the book is designed to be used. After the usual preliminary remarks, let the teacher commence by explaining in familiar language the divisions of the subject, illustrating, if desirable, upon the blackboard. Then let him direct attention to the remarks on this. subject in the book, asking the questions there given, or similar ones of his own. Attention may also be directed to the divisions as they are actually arranged, directing the pupils to notice how many pages are devoted to Rhythm, how many to Melody, and how many to Dynamics. He then says, ‘‘we now commence, of . course, with Rhythm,’’ and questions upon the subject of Rhythm

‘as laid down on page 1—Chap.I. As the subject of Rhythm .

is the length of sownds the first thing for the learner to do, is to learn to measure them. In this chapter the fact that musical sounds are measured by time, must be explained ; also the man- ner in which it is done, viz., by dividing the time into equal por- tions, called measures, and the manner in which measures are represented in written music. These can be explained either in the tedcher’s own language and with his own illustrations upon the blackboard, or in the language and with the illustration contaimed in the book. Chap. II. is upon beating time. This cannot receive too much attention. Perhaps no method can better be taken to convey the idea of the regularity with which the hand must move, than to impress strongly upon the mind of the pupils the ideas contained in this chapter. In Chap. HI, the scholars learn the names, forms and lengths of the notes. The teacher need not adopt the manner of speaking of the lengths of the notes introduced here, although it is without doubt the plain- est language for beginners. It is true as far as this book is con- cerned, and learners readily comprehend their usual meaning, after having been accustomed to regard them as here explained. In Chap LV, singing in connection with beating the time, is intro- duced. Chap. V, is devoted to the practise of whole, half and quarter notes. Such exercises are somewhat tedious, and it will verhaps be better, to review them at two or three successive

lessons, than to spend much time upon them when first intro-


This is the proper place to introduce meLopy. ‘The teacher should now make himself familiar with the songs and solfeggois, and introduce them as fast as the knowledge of the scholars will permit. For example, as soon as the elass.are able to sing the exercises in Chap V, (page 26,) they can sing, understandingly, the


upper part of the song Flight of Time,’ page 221. After chapter VIL in Melody has been studied, the middle part of Solfeggio No.1, (page 85,) may be introduced, (because it contains nothing with which the pupils will not have become acquainted when

‘they have studied as far as the chapter mentioned,) also the upper

part of Solfeggios, No. 3 and 4. After chapter XI in Melody, any of the solfeggios and songs in the key of C which do not contain sharps or flats, can be practised, and after the chromatic scale, all in the key of C. In this manner all of the solfeggios and songs should be gradually introduced. It may be well, as an exercise in pronunciation and musical expression, to allow some of the songs to be learned by rote. The teacher can, however, (and it is perhaps the better method,) adopt the plan, that no songs or solfeggios shall be sung until the school are able to sing them by note, taking care, however, that they are introduced as fast as the class acquire the requisite ability.

For want of room, the songs and solfeggios arg arranged with- out a piano forte accompaniment. It is presumed, however, that even those unacquainted with thorough base will experience no difficulty in playing three parts. The third may be played an octave lower than it is written. In many of the solfeggios, it will, perhaps, be éasier to play the second and third parts with the left hand and the first part alone with the right hand.

The songs are arranged for Ist and 2d Treble and Alto voices only. For classes composed of ladies and gentlemen, an edition in which the songs are omitted, is issued. See page II.

The solfegeios are not arranged in progressive order, nor are those of the same key placed together ; it will, therefore, be necessary for the teacher to become sufficiently acquainted with them, to be able to select lessons suited to the state of advance- ment of the class. i

, ~

i S Bote mel 7,


After Studyiey 6c sdeue 4, PUL SONS were ae Angel Watchers . . oii wide Approbation. . .

At the Grave ofa Schoolmate, Call to Joy “vn. ; Care not for the morrow Childhood !

Closing Song 4 Concord ee aS Contentment

Contraries icy 5 Barly Day ep 4 cele Evening Hymn

Fleeting Hours

Flight of Time . 2 Forth where pure breezes ; Friendship Shale 20 Franz Drake) #28), Hans Sacks’ Pic-nic .

Hours of Study A Hymn for Examination Day

Hymn for the commencement of the School 286

Incitement to i Be Innocence In Summer .

In Winter sleep ‘the Flowers .

Know you how many stars, Bay Sone Te oe ee Morning Call

Morning Hymn : ; % ; :

Morning’s Awaking wee lar 01% Morning Song. z

My Home in the Valley . °



285 256 274 242 269 233 273 234, 276 235 251 231 220 283 265 221 218 219 258 252 282 266

270 994 914. IAT 268 O57 226 231 246 280 244.

Nature brought no sorrow. . . .

MightSonet. So tee eh te a tees

O How Purely . 3. St ie aaa O Praise the Lak Ss eo Song of Praise : hie : Song of Praise, (Rinck.)

Song i im the Night. :

Summer Song Abele MRURTUSE. ings SUmeMmaey eS yo, oY hates Swiss Song .

The Beauties of Meare. ne Birth, Mamie. Oe ues, cal The Boy's Wane er | iehde: a . The Brooklet . , ween See : The Cottape ry" aS aaa The Dying Wear ond +, vig : Che armersuGall sa, Cosy

The Five Senses . The Four Seasons,

‘The Gardener, .>.. 3. 4 The Golden Rule rae The Green Summer Birds

et ame ee ee

The Moonbeam Fairies ., ,

The Maiden and Rose . 5 Ns The Open Air. . i ise, Fs SR The Pleasures of iis 3

The Rivulet . ih Esai

The Sabbath Bell. TaD, ANG A The Silver Streams ) 3). ow) The Seasons

The Snow

The Tinman, the Doe and ihe oe a

The Treasures of Lite ems 3 The Voice of Home’. , 2°. # %

_ 995

PAGE. 213 290 4 284 223 288 ane 219 299 260

220 261 239 230 277 236 228 278 263 237 250 216 258 217 21)

| The Voice of the Fell

The Walk Time’s* Footsteps . To Nature

There lives a God Up, Brothers, Up . Vacation Song ad While to Heaven Winter : Worth of Labor

Balerma . . Dedham .

Dresden .

Duke St. 2%: Greenville Hamburg . , WEarhOw feu? , es Nuremburg

Old Hundred, No. ies

212 289 232 287 241 254, 248 272

Olmutz . Pleyel’s s Hymn. Rockingham . . Wilmot... jus ape Chant, Nodes 5 Chant, No.2)" $7. Chant, No.3 . .


Old Hundred, No.2".


oF eS) Se Re © Sees

Pawage” Ww o e

be ak OO a ay i)

292 299 aot, 301 298 291 294 296 296 294, 292 300 293 295 302 303



pees Ie, i fai

‘The Elementary Principles of Music, are arranged : in Three Departments, viz: Rurtum, MeLopy, and |

Dynamics. Ruytsm treats of the Lencri of ‘Sounds:

of Sounds.

How many Departments, are; athens in the, Melasiegticy Pedaiglen of Music? h second? Of what does: it treat?) What is the third? Of what does it

treat? If you study in Rhythm, about: what will you be learning? Melo-»

dy? Dynamics? If: i wish to ascertain anything relating to the Power of sounds, to which department must you turn? About the Length of sounds? About the Pitch of sounds? Is there anything relating to the Power of sounds in Melody? What is the subject of Melody? ‘Is

there wane A relating to the Pitch of sounds in’ Rhythm? “What is: hythm? Is there awe about. the rength of sounds:

the subject of in Dynamics? | May

* fe tas state with regard to lowness or hgh ( Walker: ).

cg erreergiced

Which Department i in the Elementary Principles of Music is Rhythm? Of what does it treat? Shall we find anything about the Pitch of sounds:

in it? Shall we find ba tat about the: Power of sounds in it? Why? 2 uae

“Mutopy, | the steam whistle of a locomotive?

of the Pitcn* of SOUROR i Dynamics, ‘of the Powsr

at is the first? Of what does it treat?, What is the.

“| Bars.


ibsmethl nj describe the liveth ofa room? How the, A aad of a piece of ribbon?. How the length of a sound, produced for example, b Can sounds be measured y feet

or yang? ay ‘How must they be measured? » (Ans. By: Tren. )

“Nore. “The teacher can here sing sounds of different lengths, and

| let the pupils judge how many seconds long, each is.

Musical sounds must be measured by time. To do this, the time occupied in the performance of a piece

of music must be, divided into,zEquaL. portions. ‘These equal portions of.time, are called Measures. | Music is written upon five horizontal lines. These

are divided into small spaces, by perpendicular lines drawn across them,. The perpendicular lines are called The: spaces included between the bars Tepre- sent measures. .

How many au are. there in the following ehaapte? How many

| measures?

(Each dot renee a musical sound.)



a ?


ae Orey cr ys C43 ty

medhanist, invented an \ oathummedt called a Metronome, It. has.a.Pendulum,* which swings and ticks at regular intervals ot time, like that of a-clock. | 2 a instrument, _is, in fact, a” ¢ lock, turned upside down, but without

dial plateor hands.) af the weight .. ae be moved | upward: a 7} pen ndulu a We ' + Se Hoe i Vis it io


( ‘Seceomne » cay

Measures are equal portions of fime. Le the exam- ple, we will suppose each measure to occupy..four. seconds. In the first measure, there will then be one sound four seconds longs -;In, the “Sa two sounds, each two seconds long. In the third, four sounds, each one second lon ai ‘In the fourth,° eight sounds, each ‘a half of a sécond long. - In'the fifth, siateen sounds, each’ a quarter of-a second long. ;-Observe. that. the spaces. included. between.the, bars, represent measures, In the example, to the eye the last measure is “much, longer. than the, first; to the ear they are, of equal | lengths. . : bs

Measures’ are “awiaea int wink OF queasy “A measure of two parts is’ called’a DouBLE measuréi-a’

er dragging ee ei i A

measure of three parts, a TRIPLE measure—a measure’ “ty aa. © , ih n the gamle! id a a” yaa pode chaste thie titne of four parts, a QUADRUPLE’ hedsute—a''y measure. ‘OL | Sanit iors tee mputed wert Thi come an ‘accuracy and. regu--

pie a5 TELS SF LG} aS Beha a al A abl sof Hakim eee larity’ as by a metronome or’a clock. It ;would not be: ow is the len of soun c? ny BS

pottiens of time Alida sata whach buasielia divided (Avatars Mensa convenient for the members of a school to"bé’ éach’ ures? What represent measures? What are Bars? . giibat is, the, dif-. supplied with ‘a metronome, nor: would: the noise: soft so ference eo a bar na], eee ‘ki Ripa Iways look many ticks form an agreeable accompaniment to the Hownthest pre! thomalikel.,, Hawn map ykigdssetomeanmes ane there singing. We must, therefore, resort to some other

method, less expensive jand ‘less noisy, but equally

will | swing slower AS Faway ag. faster; but put the weight where you ‘will, its: ‘motions will’ ‘always’ be..in. ‘equal ‘time; never faster, / never slower; ever vovus'emtioe nev=

EE = 9



= i —==

ow many parts has Double measure? Triple?” “Quadruple? . Sextu- ple? What Catena a one hope of measure from another? i aad dL

Sa S3G meh dosh

fF eed eee r '* PENDULUM, any, weight bung so that,it may easily swing backwards Somat CHAPTER. mise MWECR _ [and forwards, of which: the breat law is, that its oscillations are. always) Pap. ate in computing Time, zt ra pen ithe coebabot | performed in EQUAL time: ( Walker.) ® 8 280 8 Lane Vans


wedurtte! "Phat visually adoptsdiin singing, is) to make

certain motions of the hand, carefully imitating in regu- larity the movements of a pendulum. ‘This is called BEATING TIME. One motion*~of the hand (orené BEAT) must. he aNAMA hen eash ena of a,measure., Double ‘measure, therefore, hastwo beats—first, . lown ;, second, Up. .Triple measure. has thre ay stom rae thect, Up. Quadruple. measure chas four _beats—first, Down; second, Left ; Wee fronts fpurth, Up. Sextuple measure has six beats—first, Down; aa falls SAS, blo SBaonl” own eethand (aise the “Te- snainder ‘of the way 3) third, Deft; fourth, Right; fifth, Up ; (hand rises half of the way ;) sixth, Up. (hand rises the remainder of the way.) oe Nor ae

In beating time, the:shand must imitate a pendulum in the regularity, but not in the manner of its move-

ments... It must moye instantaneously, and then remain |" ~~ stationary» until the time for the next motion... Care| ©

must’ also takén, not to touch’ anything with’ the hand, All. noise must be.ayoided in beating, the time, lest the effect of the music thus measured, be injured.

The words Measure and Tim are often used synony- mouslyin music. The expressions ‘‘Double Measure”’ and ‘‘Double Tine’? mean the samé thing.

How is Time usually computed in singing? .How.many beats has.

Double “Measure?. Why?. How many beats has Triple Measure? Quadruple? Sextuple? What is the meaning of Double

has three beats—first, Down ;

ime? Triple


‘Time? » Quadruple Tine? Sextuple 'Titne? hi beating time; what

pmnust' the shand:imitate in the régularity-of its» motions?’ Im what re- ‘spect mustit not imitate od bj a ‘Which way on first beat

in Double‘time be made? ‘The se¢ond? The first beatin ‘Priple time? &c. How much noise must be made, in beating time? How hard must you strike your desk or whatever is before you, in making the downward beat? Why? Is it right to beat time with the feet? Why?

<Ey é ? OITSES :

nee *

¢ We Serra!

PTT Teele Tet Sao tee wees If we speak’ of the length of a table, we say, it is so many feet long; if of a carpet, it is so many yards long. It is’customary to designate the length of mu- sical sounds, by. the number of beais which : are: made to each. bei). azon-as(l sodahad Langu? : vi-wo ld = ; The following characters, called Norss, are used to indicate the length of sounds$:)90) > bse9 feo) 94!

_ _The first is called a wore note; because it is the longest in common use.” It is four beats long.” The

second is called a Harr note; itis half as long as a | WHOLE. z | quarter as long as a wHoLeE. © The fourth is called an

The third is called a QUARTER note; it 1s one

‘EIGHTH note} it is one eighth as long as a wHoLE. The fifth is called a sIxTEENTH note; it is one sixteenth as

long as @ Wuotn. $c See chap. X


What characters denote the lengthof sounds?. notes are there in common use? What is the longest called? The second? -The-third? The fourth? The fifth?) How long is a whole |

“note Ahalf note?’ A yee ered An gc roens me A sixteenth note

CHAPTER 1 IV. How many measures has this exercise? How many bars? What kind of measures are they? How do:you know?

Sing the i to : ath La.

bar hab a late aa ‘Note: It can also be sung, using one of ‘the following wontd 5 3 viz: Lof-ty ; Low-ly ; Tune-ful; Joy-ful; Dark-ness; Glad-ness; or tal other word of two syllables. The first part of double measure must be. novented.

Note. The accent im singing, must not usually be stronger, than it |. kind of measures are they

is in the pronunciation of. words which are accented on the first sylla- ble.

How many measures. has this exercigal kind of measures are they? How do you know?

Jesh sek leah bf wibscl fu) raul 1.9 .@ @1|16 e@\@

Notre. Use the an on La; oo Stu- -ous ; Glo-ri-ous; Melody Har-mo-ny ; 3 Or any other word of three arliabiee,

The first oe of Triple measure must. be. accented.


How many kinds of

a ! Bsa pag eo || | ‘das oe td

How many bars? _ What


' How many measures has_ this ek How many ba What kind of measures are they? How 0 you know! . aa oe ; ;


The first and third parts: of Quadruple Measure must be accented.

How many measures ne? this exercise? How be bars? What kind of measures are they?’ How do you know ?

divas laedde dtpaaeaderee

The first and: fourth parts of Sextuple measure must be accented. y


How many measures has exercise No. 12 How many bars? What ow can you tell?’ How many sounds How

must be sung in the first measure? How long must each be? |

‘| many in the second measure? How long must it be? How do you

know. Nore. Ask similar questions, before singing each of. the other ex- ercises. ‘a 7 | No. OS oe ie 8 pa at | ta eel rely, LAPP Or Peer


No. “te dal i

x08 ae Ava

gs 3&8






P oe ; ad hs ray |

= sdslddddlel- diel



HAH! , | | a In studying the Elements of Music, we do nof, as in \@@eelea Arithmetic, go through the first department, before at-

| tending tothe second and third. ~ Idi Bc It will be necessary to study Sittira: I, I, lel III, IV and V, in MeEtopy, before re ‘to the


Jdidd dal

4 q next in ‘this soporte

Noi! ee


“le cs FI i ai] he 2 le |} | I 1d} | e 7 i A Dot adds to a note one half its primitive length. ig Hel | A dotted halfnote ( 3. ) is, therefore, three beats long. : How long is'a dotted whole (@«)?~ A dotted quarter (¢!. lil et | | What kind of measures are the following? &c.

No. 1... Nos. 1,2 and 3 may be sung together."


ake Velde diddddid dle!

1 a at Sst

| +i ecol@eceltece


H| | \CHAPTER YEE p>] .ts01 | <5 |} @ ' F SS Tt ; : ; To produce certain effects, a measure, or part of a | measure, is often passed over.insilence. Such assa- ;, | ges are indicated by characters called Rests. Each | note has @ corresponding rest, which denotes that as (| much time must pass in silence as would be oceupied [| in singing the note. | boon |


RHYTHM: : ra

ar me ea ee on ae ee =

Dotted Eighth Rest). Dotted Sixteenth Rest.

No. 4. Nos. 4, and 6\may be sung together. :

. a 2

How long is a Whole Rest? &c. How do whole and haif rests dif- fer in appearance? Quarter and éighth rests? 7°97) 1" Oo Uae EL Fag t= qrovests SE RRERET EEE Sar ie Sienennarciis a eee ices

- te y ; . nme Oe I donnie =a Een ee Sern © H aiid * a 5 ee, a Bed Ho ns ; iid at tak. coo ae = as oe

: : ae : SS ;


J bag gee f= on ge Rp fe ee - eae

~ TaN o.S&. “Nos. 1, 2 and 3 may be sung together.

ak! . Be ve

niet suasenanlienniennmeniatentemmemens ee Kid AS a ee

, to.Cuaptrer VI in Meropy. ~ ee ee ee oe Se cnsappeeiniaide. area dint mn

8 | RHYTHM CHAPTER VIII. b of | No. 6.

What kind of notes occupy the second measure of No. 1? How long is an eighth? How many eighths must be sung toa beat? ~

No. 1. N os, 1, 2 and 3 may be sung together.

9 may be sung together.


‘What kind of notes oceupy the third measure of No.1? How long is a sixteenth? How’many must be sung to a beat?

Nos. 1, 2.and 3 may be sung together. °

229 ee ee Ee ia, 9 mee inamee

9-0 |e0ee-oeee

‘am ===) ae = oy = a | ———

(a ———1 et pars a as CA) Ame

Nore. It forms a useful and pleasant exercise, to allow the school to name the sounds by numerals, syllables or letters, in time; i. e. naming one ee to a beat ; two ‘eighths to a hie &e. ,in the Speak- =” ing voice. 4G. 3s pega!


EES _ sa , Tw | ate alal aw pecs Hert


may be sung together. ie uses

5 ae ar ra oe +++ e-@ a a r ~ i / D a) i my ' .

a “CHAPTER X. .~ oe -. In this work, @ QUARTER NOTE 18 always ONE BEAT long. In music, books generally, this is not the case;. > | but two figures in the form of a fraction, are placed at {| the commencement of each tune, the upper figure. ~~ | showing the kind of time in which the piece.iswritten,


and the lower one, the hein of a note which is one peat. long. ~ ad

In this book, one figure only i is qscae at ine com- mencement of” ath exercise and tune. ‘This indicates the°kind of time in which the tune is written. Another

figure would be superfluous, because, throughout the

book, (except in this Chapter, ) a quarter note is one beat long. .

Nore. See Chapter XVI, for an explanation of a kind . move-

ment, which may perhaps be raaickapedl an exception.

Suppose the figures § tobe at the commencement of a piece of mu- sic, in what kind of time would the piece be written? What kind of

note would be one beat long? If 4 isat the commencement? 4? 37 §?

41 a §2. 32°27 Why is the lower figure omitted in this book? In this book, what does the figure 4 at the commencement of a tune mean? The figure 2? 6? 31 Ifa tune has no figure at the commencement, can 4ou tell in what kind of time itis? In what kind of time is exercise

o.. 11 How do you know? What kind of a note is one beat long? How do you know?

In tunes where a half or a whole is one beat long, eer notes than wholes sometimes occur.

A poustE NoTE ( |i or rc) is twice as long as a

whole note.

In tunes where an eighth or a sixteenth 1s one beat long, shorter notes than sixteenths sometimes.occur. A dash added to the stem°of a quarter note, forms a note of one half the length of a quarter. Every ad- ditional dash has a similar effect; thus, one dash


forms an 8th; two, a 16th; three, : a 32d: four; a bah; five, a 128th; and so on,




. —o 53” ATTEND NEXT TO CuapTeR IX 1n MeExopy.

Notx. All of the remaining Chapters in Melody can be studied be- fore the subsequent Chapters in Rhythm. If preferred however, the rest of this department may be introduced at any time, during the re- mainder of the course. .


A dotted quarter (e.) isabeat and a half long; i. e. it occupies as much time as three eighth notes. -

Note. The exercises of this Chapter may be sung, first reducing the dotted quarters to eighths; afterwards singing the dotted quarters with an undulation of the voice for each eighth note, and finally, with one smooth--sound, in length. equal to. three eighths. Thinking of three eighths, will assist the singer in making a dotted quarter the right ine ae as i ae i avo. 1. .





“This eiaatte senna called a drawn over or under two notes which are on the same degree of the staff, unites them, and they become virtually one note. _When.a note. commences on the unaccented | part.of a measure, and is continued on the accented | part, it is called a SYNCOPATED note, and must be ac- cented.



are found difficult to

If the quarters in the above exercises,

sing, reduce them to eighths, as in Chapter XI.-








{ r | ; ! | F » H V8. a | ae ; ; } i | | a i ie a | au | ¥ | | | i f * : | ' | | i } rr | Hl i 4


te CnaPreeny.- ets |


Three notes sometimes occupy a part of a measure,

and must be sung to one beat,

PAE them. T


he figure, however, is often gpaitted:


Such notes are called a and usually have a figure 3 written over a

{ at he a ame

. a Te Pa Be ao - ae al a

yt ey Ma PP

.7 ae es ee rat eas SS ag Teasaesis A noes coat aat Hi ae a—tn wo a Od Pd me ent! aa

__, CHAPTER XVE0 0, In the following exercises, a triplet occupies each 9} | part.of a measure throughout. A dotted quarter is,

| therefore, but one beat long, being considered as the -_three_eighth notes which compose. a triplet, united... A - | quarter, also, is considered as being composed of two. - | of the eighths of a triplet united, and is but two thirds "| of abeat long; 1. e. a quarter and an eighth together, _ occupy only the time usually occupied by a: quarter. _ Nore. Music in this kind of movement, is usually figured §, 3 or ¥2. _ | It seems equally proper, to consider a triplet as occupying each part of

* | the measure. > an

> i i

Ya - Cae


A dotted eighth (g-) is three quarters of a beat long;

| i..e.as long as three sixtéenths., = ae Note. If the dotted eighths are found difficult,