Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority

Pembrokeshire County Council

Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2

Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan 1

HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT (ARCHAEOLOGY)

Supplementary Planning Guidance

This item is also available in Welsh/ Mae'r eitem hon ar gael yn Gymraeg hefyd

Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority

Consultation September 2020

Adoption approval date

Pembrokeshire County Council

Consultation October 2020

Adoption approval date

Contents

sedit —————————Á—————————————— 1 INTRODUCTION e—————————M 2 SECTION A - WHERE CAN I GET INFORMATION AND EARLY ADVICE? ...........................eeeeeeeeee eene eene e nennen nenne nn nnuue 4

How are archaeological sites protected? ............... esses essen nh nnns ness thia sa nisse serta rada s asses easi ada asas nnn 4 SECTION B WHAT HAPPENS BEFORE A PLANNING DECISION? .............................eeeeeeeeee eese e eene nenne ense sss sn nass s sss suu 6

Preservation of Archaeological Remains in situ

Preservation of Archaeological Remains by Record

SECTION C WHAT HAPPENS FOLLOWING A PLANNING DECISION? ..........................e eee eere eene nennen nnne nnne nnnnn 10 APPENDIX 1 RELEVANT LEGISLATION AND POLICY REQUIREMENTS ....................... ee ee eee eene ee eene nennen nennen nnno 12 Scheduled Monuments and CadWw ............... sees siis seen siii tnn enini seen soia ia esses tasses tns ss sa esses an assets 12 Human:Remains 5er enit eee ee RH deant e e Ae oer i ceu dés eed bes 13 Hedgerow:Regülatiahs: 5 eiii ee terr nd aede eee A200 ced bon EY ENT Lo oh Fed EY asides o SE YR sy ed ae ea rea Na RET Q IE CEPR ge ET 13 Historic Parks and Gardens Register ............... sss esee seen nnne nh nhan nsns ssa taa d asas essa sa ada asas sse sa sa daas iaasa 14 Historic Landscapes Registers............... sessi esses eese nennen ener AE sse Aa aa sess ea Aaaa AE a sa aa dass assa easi aa daas EAEn 14 Landscapes of Outstanding Historic Interest ..........ccceessssscececeseessassceseceseesscseceseceseeseasecesecsesesasesesecseeesesseasseeees 14 Landscapes of Special Historic Interest................. eiiis sessi n nnns en na ra asas sess ALEEN assess ea sa ra daas assa 14 Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscapes Areas - ASIDOHL ..... 15 Historic Landscapes of Regional or Local Importance ............... isses esee eene en nhrhan asses enti ra dans nnn 15 Other Environmental Considerations ................ eese eee enn seinen nnns tenth siis sa esses thai itera nissan 16 APPENDIX 2 CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNDERTAKING ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK .......................... eene ee eene nnns 17

Responsibility for Costs

Quality Control sssrin AF EE RARE Goo How to find an Archaeological Contractor

APPENDIX 3 ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK ......................eeeeeeeeeeeesess sess ese sh sss husu sss assa sa sass sss ss asas sss sssa assa assa sss ss assa asas aun 19

Historic Environment Appraisal... are e aha een a RENE Rx e steeds e PERR URN EMT IT CHR R RR na EET e Pe RRRAEE VE SY enda Desk:büsed'assessment «5:0 estt cc etre n e xa Hg LR Ego e eque E T ERN URL Re Eaürthwork SUkVeyui iis iitecsii eie A CERE ER AE FRE AER EE RENE TS EXER VER EAN VL UTER A a A A TR RATES UTER RYAN RA Remote sensing / Geophysical Survey ....

Field: EvaluatiOnss:;.i ne c ete e E ERR ENTERO E a RR RIDERE nie eda

BUIGING ateolgelis sam ————— teiees

Watching Brief... s i du e eds on e ee ad a reda Te ROBA a ERE ER EB E Ve CUTE e ed aaa coe SEA a abe 21

IU) EX COV ORCI ON PE ie aariin AAE A A AAAA A E TAE E Aa A EAE AA a a a eia aa ei aiaa ii aaia 22 APPENDIX 4 STANDARD PLANNING CONDITIONS AND ADVICE ON IMPLEMENTATION ........................ eee eee 23 oda vb e-Xeo] Nie —————————————————Ü 24 hiddsid [gl —————————————————— 26

Local Development Plans... rtis ete d ea detenta eee ex un oes aee en epa bud ad vna dee y eua nan eda e da Voip ean deua

PACES irit terr rp For E

National Policy and Guidance

CIfA' Regulations. etc... «xn od wo ente Cose a eai M reed ox Gee uo 39 eheu eee hae o AEEA oda d o edes PORE

Introduction

1. In (September 2020) the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2 (end date 2031) was adopted by Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority.

2. In (February 2013) the Pembrokeshire County Council's Local Development Plan 1 (end date 2021) was adopted by Pembrokeshire County Council.

4. While only the policies in the adopted development plans have special status in deciding planning applications, (i.e. for the purpose of any determination under the Planning Acts, the determination must be made in accordance with the relevant Plan unless material considerations indicate otherwise), Supplementary Planning Guidance can be taken into account as a material planning consideration provided it is derived from and is consistent with the adopted development plan and has itself been the subject of consultation, which will carry more weight.

decisions on matters that come before it, Welsh Government and

i of-policies-within-the

relevant Development Plan and b. Weigh up-all the other planning considerations to see whether they outweigh the conclusion of the relevant Develooment Plan.

6. This Supplementary Planning Guidance provides detailed information regarding how planning applications with the potential to impact upon archaeology within Pembrokeshire will be dealt with. It also provides information on the way in which Development Plan policies will be applied.

. This Guidance is intended to assist all applicants seeking planning permission whether their proposed development is large or small in scale. As developers will be expected to meet the costs of archaeological work (see Appendix 2 Considerations for Undertaking Archaeological WorkApoendbcz-coensdemtencdorndenaldac-^rehaeologiea Wore), this document will assist in guiding non-specialists through the planning procedures and any archaeological work that may be involved. Information is provided on where to seek information and specialist advice and how to secure the services of professional archaeological contractors.

. This Guidance document has been prepared in consultation with the Dyfed Archaeological Trust (Development Management section): the authorities’ professional advisors on matters relating to the historic environment.

. This Supplementary Planning Guidance is divided into three parts:

a. Section A provides information on getting early advice

b. Section B advises on what happens before a planning decision is made

c. Section C advises on what happens following a decision being made.

10. The appendices provide more detailed advice on various technical issues

involving archaeology in the planning process. They also include a list of useful contacts.

Section A - Where can I get information and early advice?

How are archaeological sites protected?

11.In Pembrokeshire over 530 sites are currently given statutory protection as scheduled monuments under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979, and more recently the Historic Environment (Wales) Act 2016. It is an offence to carry out any work to them without written consent from the Welsh Government. If scheduled sites or their settings are affected by planning applications, Cadw must be contacted'.

12.20,867 non scheduled archaeological sites and their settings are currently recorded in the regional Historic Environment Record maintained by Dyfed Archaeological Trust (DAT). These are protected by the planning process with a presumption in favour of preserving, in situ, nationally important archaeological sites. Welsh Government guidance is set out in Planning Policy Wales (Chapter 6, Edition 48 11) and Technical Advice Note 24: The Historic Environment (May 2017).

13. This places an onus on developers to consider the impact of their proposals on archaeology. The key to the protection of archaeological sites lies with the Local Planning Authorities working closely with applicants and the regional Welsh Archaeological Trust; in the case of Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority and Pembrokeshire County Council this is Dyfed Archaeological Trust.

14.Both Local Development Plans in Pembrokeshire provide for heritage protection. For Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, Strategy Policy 8 ‘Special Qualities’ of Local Development Plan 2 requires the safeguarding and enhancement of the special qualities of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. Among these recognised qualities is the historic environment. Policy requires that 'the historic environment is protected and

! Cadw is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government. Cadw works to protect the historic buildings and structures, the landscapes and heritage sites of Wales, so that the public can visit them, enjoy them and understand their significance.

where possible enhanced'. Further information on the historic environment is given in the 'Historic Environment' section.

15.For Pembrokeshire County Council, Local Development Plan 1 recognises the importance of the historic environment in Policy GN.38 Protection and Enhancement of the Historic Environment: 'Development that affects sites and landscapes of architectural and/or historical merit or archaeological importance, or their setting, will only be permitted where it can be demonstrated that it would protect or enhance their character and integrity.

16.A summary of relevant national legislation policy and guidance and their main implications can be found in Appendix 1 Relevant Legislation and Policy Requirements.

17. Detailed data on the archaeology within Pembrokeshire is held within the regional Historic Environment Record and is available on request from Dyfed Archaeological Trust. Early consultation is advisable as the needs of development and archaeological preservation are best reconciled at an early stage.

18.In their own interests applicants are encouraged to assess the impact of their proposals on archaeological sites by consulting with Dyfed Archaeological Trust Development Management (DAT-DM) during the pre- planning stages. Guided by information and advice, sympathetic designs can be prepared, which are intended to protect archaeological interests without incurring potentially high costs in carrying out archaeological work.

19. Applicants should take into account archaeological considerations and should discuss preliminary plans with the relevant planning authority at an early stage prior to submitting a planning application.

20. Once detailed designs have been prepared and finance arranged, flexibility and archaeological mitigation become more difficult to consider. Developers who do not consider historic environment issues at an early stage can be faced with unexpected discoveries, delay and expense during the course of development. Managing this risk through obtaining early advice is considered vital to all parties concerned in the planning process.

ARCHAEOLOGY AND YOUR PLANNING APPLICATION

Developer

Welsh Archaeological Trust (Curatorial Division)

Planning Authority

Z Ss 3 E

CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION

2VELOPMENT

DE

* additional information for example desk-based assessment field evaluation

geophysical survey ‘The Welsh Archacological Trusts

monitor archacological work throughout on behalf of the Local Planning Authority to ensure compliance with planning and maintenance of best practice

This simplified flow-chart is designed to show key stages in the planning process and should be used with the accompanying leaflet

Section B What happens before a planning decision?

21.Acting as the professional archaeological advisors to the planning authorities in Pembrokeshire, Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management is notified of all planning applications lodged in Pembrokeshire and makes appropriate recommendations accordingly.

22. Planning authorities expect proposals to take account of archaeology and may require additional information to be provided in support of a planning application. Without this further information they may recommend deferral or refusal of a planning application.

23. This additional information can be provided in the form of desk-based assessment and/or archaeological field evaluation which may also involve geophysical survey. This work will determine the nature of the archaeology and its significance, and could include proposals designed to protect archaeological interests while enabling development. In all cases, archaeological projects must be carried out in accordance with an agreed specification / Written Scheme of Investigation (WSI) prior to the undertaking of any work. Assessment methodologies are fully described in Appendix 3 Archaeological WorkApperdix 3 Archaeological Work.

24.Early consultations, as described above, will give prospective applicants advance information about the archaeological sensitivity of their site. The submission of archaeological information is not a validation requirement from the standard application form. Therefore determination regarding whether archaeological information is adequate would need to be assessed post-registration as part of the consideration of the application (unless made as a local validation requirement for major applications). Therefore pre-application engagement is even more important.

25.Where insufficient information has been provided, the planning authority can decide to refuse to grant planning permission.

26. Developments which seriously affect nationally important archaeological remains are unlikely to obtain planning permission. For archaeological features of lesser importance, permission may be given providing strategies are put in place to investigate and record in advance of development.

27.At this stage two main options are open to the planning authority; these are ‘preservation in situ’and ‘preservation by record’.

28.Where remains are not known but suspected, the relevant planning authority may require that archaeological mitigation, such as a watching brief, be carried out as part of development. Occasionally unexpected remains can be found during development. To meet these unforeseen circumstances developers should make contingency arrangements and consider insuring themselves.

Preservation of Archaeological Remains /n situ

29.Where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or not, and their settings are affected by proposed development there will be a presumption in favour of their physical preservation in situ, i.e. a presumption against proposals which would involve significant alteration or cause damage, or which would have a significant impact on the setting of visible remains. In these instances it may be appropriate for the planning authority to refuse planning applications that would have a significant adverse impact on the historic environment.

30. The policy of the planning authority is to ensure the protection of archaeological remains through engineering solutions and designs. For example, raising ground levels or constructing foundations that avoid disturbing archaeological remains altogether will be actively encouraged. In other circumstances, sensitive archaeological remains can be physically preserved through the careful positioning of landscaped or public open areas. Such techniques can seal archaeological remains beneath buildings or through careful landscape design within development areas. Although these remains may remain inaccessible for the time being, they are effectively preserved for the future, when archaeological techniques of excavation and scientific analysis will undoubtedly be improved. In these instances, the planning authority may seek assurances that buried archaeological material will remain secure after development through on- going monitoring procedures, or, in certain circumstances, the removal of permitted development rights.

Preservation of Archaeological Remains by Record

31.Where remains of less than national importance are known to exist, the planning authority may decide that when weighed against all other material considerations, including the need for development, the significance of the archaeological remains is not sufficient to justify their physical preservation in situ.

32.In such cases the planning authority, through the attachment of appropriate

planning conditions (see Appendix 4 Standard Planning Conditions and advice on implementationAppendbc4-Standard-Planning-Conditions-and advice-onimplementation) may require the developer to make satisfactory

arrangements for the excavation, recording, archiving and publication of the archaeological resource. This detailed excavation and recording work, which may often be time-consuming and expensive, is generally a second- best option and must be carried out prior to the commencement of development.

33. Other planning conditions may require the applicant to carry out building recording in the form of a photographic record prior to and during the course of development or arrange for an archaeological watching brief to be carried out by a professional archaeologist during development.

34. On behalf of the planning authority, Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management will consider the applicant's submitted archaeological scheme and, if satisfactory, the relevant Local Planning Authority will approve the document in writing, allowing the archaeological work to commence. Only when the work is satisfactorily completed will the planning authority be able to discharge the relevant condition.

Section C What happens following a planning

decision?

35. On behalf of the planning authority, Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management will normally monitor archaeological work to ensure compliance with planning requirements and the maintenance of high archaeological standards in the county. All archaeological work will be subject to monitoring from inception and project design, through fieldwork and the post-excavation processes, to the deposition of the resulting archive in an agreed repository and final publication.

36. The planning authority will be advised by Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management on whether conditions can be discharged either in full or partially as the successive stages of the agreed archaeological programme of work are satisfactorily completed.

37.ln general the purposes of monitoring by the regional development management archaeologist on behalf of the relevant Local Planning Authority may be summarised as follows:

a.

To ensure the maintenance of high archaeological standards and best practice based on the Standards and Guidance issued by the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists.

To ensure compliance with planning regulations and requirements. To ensure compliance with any Specifications / Written Schemes of Investigation submitted by the applicant for the approval of the Local Planning Authority.

To ensure the relevance of the further information gained by the work to the ongoing planning process.

To ensure that any suggestions made by the archaeological contractor are reasonable in planning terms.

To ensure that any further recommendations resulting from the work, are founded on detailed knowledge and are reasonable in planning terms.

To help formulate, where required, an archaeological mitigation strategy, which could protect the archaeological resource whilst enabling the permitted development.

To ensure compliance with planning conditions and their satisfactory discharging.

38. Where a pre-determination archaeological field evaluation is required, Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management will visit the site to ensure that the work being carried out is in accordance with the agreed

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specification and relevant to the on-going planning process. Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management will therefore require notice of the start date, a projected timetable and a copy of the Health and Safety Risk Assessment to be submitted to them no less than 5 working days prior to the commencement of the work.

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Appendix 1 Relevant Legislation and Policy Requirements

Scheduled Monuments and Cadw

39. Over 530 monuments and archaeological sites in Pembrokeshire are given statutory protection as Scheduled Monuments under the terms of the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act, 1979. These monuments have met certain criteria, which are used for assessing their national importance. Any works that would affect these monuments will require scheduled monument consent from Welsh Government and in such cases the setting of a monument, as well as its physical preservation, are material considerations. Any work carried out to a Scheduled Monument without consent is a criminal offence and is liable to prosecution under the 1979 Act. Scheduled monument consent is separate from planning permission. The granting of planning permission does not confer scheduled monument consent nor vice versa. For a site, which is both scheduled and listed, scheduled monument legislation takes precedence over listed building requirements. Planning authorities would encourage the submission of any necessary scheduled monument consent from Cadw alongside a planning application.

40. The planning authority is required to consult with Cadw (acting on behalf of Welsh Government) on any application likely to affect a scheduled monument or its setting. A planning application which would involve significant alteration or cause damage, or would have a significant adverse

impact causing harm within the setting of the remains adversely-affects-a scheduled menumentwill normally be refused.

41.Further information on these protected sites can be obtained from Cadw (please see contact details in Appendix 5 Contacts).

42. For certain types of development (listed in Schedules 1 and 2 to The Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Wales) Regulations 2016), formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) may be necessary. Where EIA is required the developer must provide an environmental assessment setting out the information specified in Schedule 3 to the Regulations regarding the site, and the likely significant effects of the proposed development on the environment. This should include information relating to any major effects on material assets and the cultural heritage, such as archaeological features and other human artefacts. This

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should also include the measures envisaged to avoid, reduce or remedy such adverse effects.

43. Supporting the Historic Environment (Wales) Act (2016) both Planning Policy Wales, Chapter 6: The Historic Environment and Technical Advice Note 24: The Historic Environment, provide the main guidance on conserving the historic environment in Wales.

44. Technical Advice Note 24: The Historic Environment has been in place since May 2017 and supersedes Welsh Office Circular 60/96 Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology and 61/96 Planning and the Historic Environment: Historic Buildings and Conservation Areas. This is a key policy document providing detailed guidance on the handling of archaeology in the legal land-use planning system in Wales.

Planning Policy Wales and Technical Advice Note 24 - Registered Historic Landscapes and Parks and Gardens

45. Both these documents also provide advice with regard to the appropriate consideration of both Registered Historic Landscapes and Registered Parks and Gardens.

Human Remains

46. Where human remains are considered likely to be found, the appropriate licence must be obtained from the Ministry of Justice in advance. When unexpected human remains are encountered as the result of archaeological work developers must adhere to legislation and best- practice procedures for handling this sensitive material. When discovered, human remains must always be left in situ, covered and protected sensitively. No further investigation should be permitted and the local Coroner and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management must be informed immediately. Advice should be sought from the ministry of Justice and if appropriate, a licence obtained.

Hedgerow Regulations

47.Developments that require the removal of hedgerow may come under the terms of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997. These Regulations require applications to be made to the Authority for permission to remove hedgerow. Certain criteria apply in the decision making process which involve consideration of archaeological and historical interests. For instance hedgerows may be important archaeological features in their own right or form part of an ancient monument. Accordingly, the planning

13

authority consults with Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management for information from the Historic Environment Record.

Historic Parks and Gardens Register

48. Pembrokeshire contains important historic gardens and parklands, many of which are contained within the Register of Landscapes, Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales, published by Cadw in 2002. The purpose of the statutory Register is to provide information and procedures on these sites and their settings, in order to aid their protection and conservation. For planning applications that may affect sites of Grades | and II* and their essential settings, the relevant Local Planning Authority will seek the advice of Cadw when assessing the suitability of proposals. For Grade ll sites and other non-registered sites of local interest, the views of Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management, the Gardens Trust and the Welsh Historic Gardens Trust will be fully considered. Further guidance can be obtained from Cadw's Managing Change to Registered Historic Parks and Gardens In Wales (2017).

Historic Landscapes Registers

49. Parts 2.1 and 2.2 of the non-statutory Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest in Wales contain information on historic landscapes of outstanding or special historic interest. These landscapes have been recognised as areas of "the nation's most valuable cultural assets, and as special, often fragile and irreplaceable parts of our heritage".

Landscapes of Outstanding Historic Interest

50. These are large areas which retain physical evidence of the past, from the agricultural and ritual landscapes of prehistory to 19th century industrial landscapes. Eight of these Registered Landscapes lie within Pembrokeshire.

Landscapes of Special Historic Interest

51.As well as the areas above, Registered Landscapes in Wales include some that are designated as being of Special Historic Interest. They are generally smaller in area and the difference "is one of degree, and not quality of historic interests." Eight of these areas lie within Pembrokeshire. Further information can be found on the Dyfed Archaeological Trust website.

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Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscapes Areas - ASIDOHL

52. Planning Policy Wales requires that planning authorities need to take the Register into account, for development which is considered to be "of a sufficient scale to have more than local impact on the historic landscape". In these circumstances the planning authority will expect applicants to have assessed the impact of their developments on registered historic landscape, which the planning authority will weigh against other material considerations. To assist applicants for planning permission please see the Guide to Good Practice on Using the Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest in Wales in the Planning and Development Process (Revised 2007). This document includes a Technical Annex Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscapes Areas, otherwise known as the ASIDOHL methodology.

53. ASIDOHL provides guidance on assessment process and on the technical steps involved in assessing the impact of development on the historic landscapes. In the first instance it is recommended that applicants should seek the advice of the Trust on whether their development is of such a scale to warrant an ASIDOHL assessment and on what steps they should take in preparing their documentation for the purposes of the planning process.

Historic Landscapes of Regional or Local Importance

54. Not all historic landscapes in Wales are considered to be of national importance or are currently contained within the Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest in Wales. Many other, discrete landscapes of regional or local importance exist and are significant for the historical, archaeological, cultural or intrinsic value they bring to their communities. Where such historic landscapes are recognised and an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is necessary, the planning authority requires an assessment of the impact of the proposed development on the historic landscape. This requirement is addressed in guidance on national EIA Regulations 1999 SI 1999 No 293 (EIA Regulations) in Wales, and is given in Welsh Office Circular 11/99 Environmental Impact Assessment. Paragraph 46 Criterion 2 (c) (viii) refers to the necessity for Environmental

Impact Assessment in respect of “landscapes of historical, cultural or

archaeological significance”. In the first instance applicants are recommended to consult with Dyfed Archaeological Trust Development Management on whether their development is likely to impact on a non-

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registered historic landscape and what course of action may be required to assess and mitigate this impact.

Other Environmental Considerations

55. Archaeological site work, which has been commissioned by an applicant prior to the determination of an application or as part of a consented development, may impact on other environmental interests, such as habitat, hedgerow, ground water, fauna and flora, etc. It is the responsibility of both those commissioning intrusive archaeological work and those carrying out the work that they consider whether there may be other environmental impacts resulting from their activities. Further advice on these issues can be sought from the relevant planning authority or Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Heritage Management.

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Appendix 2 Considerations for Undertaking Archaeological Work

Responsibility for Costs

56. It is important to understand that archaeological work, particularly intensive excavation, can be time-consuming and expensive. Meeting these costs is solely the responsibility of the applicant / developer. As part of a planning requirement, this work can involve not just fieldwork but also post- excavation analysis, archiving and publication. There may also be costs relating to the conservation of artefacts, archiving and the storage of excavated archaeological finds.

57.Because of these potential costs to developers, the planning authorities recommend that applicants for planning permission should seek early archaeological advice by discussing their proposals with the relevant planning authority and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management. With good information on historic environment issues and understanding constraints at an early stage in the formation of development proposals, applicants may be able to lessen the likely financial impact of their development through mitigating options, which avoid impact on sensitive archaeological material.

Quality Control

58. It is the responsibility of applicants / developers, or their agents, to commission archaeological contractors to carry out work on their behalf and they will need to satisfy themselves of the ability of their chosen archaeological contractor to undertake this work.

59. The archaeological work must be undertaken by the staff of a competent and professional body, which is formally acknowledged by Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management, advisors to the two planning authorities. The planning authorities and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management recommend to those requiring archaeological work that they consider the benefits of commissioning organisations that are Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs) with the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA). This approach will provide confidence that the archaeologists undertaking the commission subscribe to codes of professional conduct and practice that are subject to strict professional sanctions should they transgress. Further information on

17

the Institute's RAO scheme can be found on their website (please see List of Useful Contacts).

60.In any event it is recommended that the archaeological contractor has appropriate experience and is managed by a Member of the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (MCIfA), who is appropriately validated. The archaeological contractor must adhere to the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists' Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for the Regulation of Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology and to the relevant Standards and Guidance.

61.It is also recommended that, in the best interest of those commissioning archaeological work, that they ensure that contractors have appropriate professional indemnity or other insurances.

How to find an Archaeological Contractor

62.Information and advice regarding the commissioning of an archaeologist can be found on the CIfA website, including CIfA's client guide which has been designed to assist anyone with archaeological requirements to meet.

63.A list of archaeological contractors undertaking work within Wales is also available via the British Archaeological Jobs Resource website.

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Appendix 3 Archaeological Work

64. Listed below are the main types of archaeological work required as part of the planning process.

Historic Envi EA isal

65. Anhistoric-environment-appraisaHHEAHs-Hesserformof

Desk-based assessment

66. Where there is good reason to believe that an application site may have an adverse impact on the historic environment has-significant-archaeological potential and information is currently inadequate, the planning authority may direct the applicant to provide a desk-based assessment prior to the determination of an application. Depending on circumstances, this relatively rapid archaeological study may form part of an Environmental Impact Assessment or it may be submitted as a standalone document. The definition of a desk-based assessment is a programme of assessment of the known or potential archaeological resource within a specified area or site on land, inter-tidal zone or underwater. It consists of a collation of existing written, graphic, photographic and electronic information in order to identify the likely character, extent, quality, and worth of the known or potential archaeological resource in a local, regional, national or international context as appropriate. The desk-based assessment should lead to one or more of the following options:

a. The formulation of a strategy to ensure the recording, preservation or management of the resource.

b. The formulation of a strategy for further investigation, whether or not intrusive, where the character and value of the resource is not

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sufficiently defined to permit a mitigation strategy or other response to be devised.

c. The formulation of a proposal for further archaeological investigation within a programme of research.

d. No further work required.

Earthwork Survey

67.In areas of agricultural land that have not been subject to intensive ploughing, archaeological remains may survive as earthworks. Surveying these sites, which may often only have shallow surface features surviving, will normally involve qualified archaeologists using electronic survey equipment to record the earthworks. From the resulting information detailed plans will be produced, which will be considered by the relevant planning authority when determining applications.

Remote sensing / Geophysical Survey

68.Indications of buried human activity can be detected by a variety of non- intrusive scientific methodologies and equipment. The main types of geophysical survey currently being used are magnetometer survey. and ground penetrating radar and resistivity survey. Site-specific geological conditions can have a major bearing on the quality of the results from such surveys and the type of survey that is appropriate in each circumstance can often only be determined after initial testing of methodologies. This work can often precede a field evaluation as the results of remote sensing can assist in determining the rationale for the number and location of trial trenches that might be required. It is unlikely that remote sensing on its own will provide the required information on an archaeological resource. Invariably, the results of these non-intrusive surveys will need to be tested through the physical process of trial excavation.

Field Evaluation

69.A field evaluation is required where the relevant planning authority has good reason to consider that a significant archaeological resource is present, perhaps as a buried feature, on an application site. An evaluation is normally a limited programme of intrusive fieldwork, which quickly determines the presence or absence of archaeological features and enables an assessment of their relative worth in a local, regional, national or international context as appropriate. The programme of work will result in the preparation of a report and ordered archive.

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70. This type of physical or intrusive evaluation may, in certain circumstances, be preceded by a programme of non-intrusive work such a field walking, earthwork survey or geophysics.

71.The intrusive element of the work normally involves trial trenching by means of archaeologically supervised mechanical excavation using machinery with a toothless bucket. The number, location and rationale for these trenches must be agreed with the relevant planning authority and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management prior to the commencement of the work. The evaluation areas must be cleaned to an appropriate standard to prove the presence or absence of archaeological features and to determine their relative significance. In each area the excavation of the minimum number of archaeological features, to elucidate the character, distribution, extent, date and importance of the eee remains is undertaken. In-each-area sufficient excavation

een An slab will excavate ius to the in ol the

archaeological horizon or the top of natural horizons whichever is reached first. If safety reasons preclude manual excavation to natural

subsoil, hand auguring may be used to try to assess the total depth of stratified deposits within each area. The resulting report should be presented to the relevant planning authority as further information to inform the planning process.

Building recording

72.Prior to the commencement of alterations to standing buildings of architectural and/or historical interest, including listed buildings, the relevant planning authority will require appropriate building recording to be carried out prior to the commencement of development work. This recording is usually required through the attachment of suitable planning conditions. As there are many forms and levels of building recording work, ranging from detailed and precise building survey through to digital photography, advice should be sought from the Dyfed Archaeological Trust-Development Management Section, who can recommend a form of recording appropriate to circumstances and national standards.

Watching Brief 73.An archaeological watching brief is normally carried out during the course of approved development for the purposes of observing, excavating and

recording archaeological remains that come to light during operations such as topsoil stripping, cutting foundation trenches or landscaping. The work

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requires a professional archaeologist to be present on site to carry out either an intensive or intermittent watching brief, which will have been described in detailed specifications. Developers should consider the implications of watching brief work which results in the discovery of significant archaeological remains. Contingency measures should be put in place to meet such unforeseen circumstances, which can have delay and cost implications. Where such remains come to light unexpectedly, the watching archaeologist will be required to contact Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management for further advice. Whilst this consultation takes place the development work directly impacting on the archaeological resource will normally be required to cease until arrangements have been put in place for appropriate archaeological recording. A report on the watching brief work, whether it has had positive or negative results, will be required by the relevant planning authority.

Full Excavation

74.Full archaeological excavation or ‘preservation by record’ is normally required where no other form of mitigation has proved practicable. It entails detailed and careful stratigraphic excavation and recording of archaeological deposits by professional archaeologists within a specified area. The work is carried out with defined research objectives and in a controlled manner normally and beneficially ahead of the commencement of the development programme. The excavation will examine, record and interpret archaeological deposits, features and structures and, as appropriate, retrieve artefacts, ecofacts and other remains. The records made and objects gathered during fieldwork are studied and the results of that study are published in detail appropriate to the project design, which has been agreed with the relevant planning authority.

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Appendix 4 Standard Planning Conditions and advice on implementation

75.When required, the relevant planning authority will protect archaeological interests through the attachment of appropriate planning conditions to permitted applications. In line with national policy these conditions should meet the criteria of being necessary, relevant to planning and to the permitted development, enforceable, precise and reasonable.

76.Only when it is demonstrated that these conditions have been properly and fully met will the relevant planning authority consider discharging planning conditions. In cases where it is clear that applicants have not implemented the requirements of planning conditions, the planning authority will consider the need for enforcement action.

77.Pembrokeshire contains many buildings of national, regional and local significance and Local Development Plans contain policies for their protection. Many of these buildings are listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 and therefore come under statutory protection. However, very many more are unlisted yet have regional or local importance having historical, architectural, traditional or intrinsic values within their communities. For these buildings, whether urban or rural, it is appropriate that they are recorded prior to the commencement of any development that will substantially alter their form or character. There may also be requirements for an archaeologist or other specialist to be present during development to record significant discoveries. The level of recording required will vary with particular circumstances and, in the first instance it is recommended that applicants contact Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management to obtain advice on what level of recording is appropriate to their circumstances.

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Appendix 5 Contacts

Organisation Address Telephone | Website Dyfed Archaeological Trust Ltd. Corner House, Tel: General | www.dyfedarc . : Carmarthen Enquiries haeology.org. Zoe Bevans-Rice Archaeological Street. Llandeilo. | 01558 uk Planning Officer Carmarthenshire | 823121 id z.bevansrice@dyfedarchaeology.org. SA19 6AE uk 5 Mike Ings Archaeological Planning Manager m.ings@dyfedarchaeology.org.uk Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Llanion Park Tel: 0845 www.pcnpa.or Authority Pembroke Dock | 345 7275 g.uk Pembrokeshire Matthew Griffiths Development SA72 6DY i Management Team Leader DC@pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk Pembrokeshire County Council Planning Tel: 01437 www.pembrok , i Department, 764551 eshire.gov.uk planningenquiries@pembrokeshire.go | Pembrokeshire v.uk l .. | County Council, Fax: 01437 planning.support.team@pembrokeshir County Hall 776496 e.gov.uk Freemans Way, Haverfordwest, SA61 1TP. Cadw email Cadw@Wales.gsi.gov.uk | Welsh Tel: 01443 Government 33 6000 Plas Carew Unit 5/7 Cefn Fax: 01443 Coed 33 6001 Parc Nantgarw Cardiff CF15 7QQ Natural Resources Wales (NRW) S.W. office 0300 065 www.naturalr Llys Afon 3000 esources.wal (Hawthorn Rise) es Haverfordwest Pembrokeshire SA61 2BQ Royal Commission on the Ancient and | Ffordd Penglais | 01970 www.rcahmw.

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Organisation Address Telephone | Website Historic Monuments in Wales Aberystwyth 621200 gov.uk SY23 3BU (RCAHMW) Pembrokeshire Archives Prendergast 01437 www.culture4 Haverfordwest 775456 pembrokeshir SA61 2PE e.co.uk The Chartered Institute for Power Steele 0118 966 www.archaeol Archaeologists (CIfA) Building 2841 ogists.net Wessex Hall Whiteknights Road Earley Reading RG6 6DE British Archaeological Jobs Resource | Thornton Mill 01368 840 www.bajr.org (BAJR) Cottage 847 Innerwick Dunbar East Lothian EH42 1QT

Links checked May 2020

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References

Local Development Plans

Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2

https://www.pembrokeshirecoast.wales/planning/planning-policy/local- development-plan-2/

Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan 1 https://www.pembrokeshire.gov.uk/adopted-local-development-plan

Acts Historic Environment (Wales) Act 2016

Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979

https://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46/contents

National Policy and Guidance

Planning Policy Wales - Edition 11 (gov.wales Technical Advice Note 24: Historic Environment May 2017

https://gov.wales/technical-advice-note-tan-24-historic-environment

The National Standard & Guidance to Best Practice for Collecting & Depositing Archaeological Archives in Wales (2017)

http://www.heritage-standards.org.uk/new-welsh-archaeological-archives- standard-2017/

Guidance for the submission of data to the Welsh Historic Environment Record - available as a pdf. Via the Dyfed Archaeological Trust website

http://www.dyfedarchaeology.org.uk/

Register of Landscapes, Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales.