, jb i, ber a i , 2 : * * : * . Va i * = ss . be ‘i \ \. 4 . . “e," P < t - w“ * bh acs a = i = a 4 _ uw ee F . pe } z =) as : = i Zz ss . wi oO = 7, a | “4

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ARCHITECTURE

it

ey 239 Ret os ee § c *

For heating lines

»-- greater efficiency with Anaconda Copper Tubes

/Naloketolale foi Gxe}o}ol-T am tl of -: folg-Wmel-Teh diel P4-te ME col lilea-telt— corrosion resistance and improve physical properties.

Anaconda Fittings have deep cups to give long, SiselilemololalerMelivemulel ew) ob port for tubes.

oF 4)

HE advantages of Anaconda Copper Tubes

for heating lines can be quickly summarized. These modern heating lines cut heat losses. Their smooth inner surfaces reduce resistance to flow ... especially valuable in forced circula- tion systems. More heat is delivered faster! Cost installed is only a little more than that of rustable pipe.

Contractors appreciate the convenience of being able to make soldered connections in tight corners, the ease with which radiators are hooked up, and the wide variety of fittings. These features simplify and expedite the heat- ing installation. There is an Anaconda Fitting for every copper tube requirement in plumbing, Heat losses cut down!

heating and air conditioning. Both Tube and

Fittings are stocked by supply houses in all AnafowoA Circulation speeded up!

sections of the country. 37224 More heat—faster!

THE AMERICAN BRASS COMPANY - GENERAL OFFICES: WATERBURY, CONNECTICUT Offices and Agencies in Principal Cities > In Canada: ANACONDA AMERICAN BRASS LTD., New Toronto, Ontario

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MOBE than just an Air Conditioner. because this HT ZGIBBONS provides

BOILER-AIRCONDITIONER °

o f HEALTHFUL aN a AIR CONDITIONING —— ae See. BOILER- ., S > ) I" " e3 - > g

7) now

@ AIR CONDITIONING. Here is the most practical type of air conditioning for the average home of small or medium size. The Fitzgibbons Boiler-Airconditioner cleans, tempers (keeps at even temperature) and humidifies the air, and circulates this thoroughly

ba i conditioned, healthful and refreshing air through those rooms ECONOMICAL++ | which the owner wishes to have air-conditioned. This selective RADIATOR HEAT method is known as “‘Split-System”’ air conditioning.

E / a j ool! <=

@ RADIATOR HEAT. Radiator heat is supplied to such rooms as bath, kitchen and garage, where air conditioning may not be desired. The famous Fitzgibbons copper-steel boiler assures quick heating and fuel savings.

@ BASEMENT BEAUTY. This equipment permits you the broadest scope in basement design. The entire unit, including burner or stoker, is enclosed behind a compact, streamlined, beau- tifully enameled jacket that harmonizes perfectly with any base- ment recreation room. The largest model occupies only 4/6” by 2/5” of floor space. You can plan the extra basement room in even the small home.

@ HOT WATER SUPPLY. Here’s one of the greatest boons for home owners. Abundant clean hot water is automatically supplied summer and winter at remarkably low cost. The Fitzgibbons TANKSAVER, a copper coil submerged within the boiler water, eliminates the need for a storage tank or other outside accessory.

J “4

The boiler is made in types for whatever method of automatic heating your client prefers oil burner, gas burner or stoker. These FITZGIBBONS units are fully described ** your ¢ ‘lients in most issues of home owners catalogs of the F. W. Dodge Corp. or write FITZGIBBONS BOILER COMPANY, a Architects Building, 101 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. In Canada write to Fess Oil Burners of Canada, Ltd., Toronto and Montreal

Give Your Clients ALL these Benefits—Specify the

=| FITZGIBBONS

American Architect and Architecture, published monthly by Hearst Magazines Inc., 572 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y $3.00 per year; Canada, $4.00; Foreign, $5.00. Entered as second class matter April 5th, 1926, at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3rd, 1879. Issue 2657, dated May, 1937.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 l

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WROUGHT IRON

e

ec

g re

@ In planning new buildings, leading architects and engineers are using wrought iron for corrosive and hard-to- maintain services. Note the services where wrought iron is used in these three fine St. Louis buildings. This sound policy of specifying materials proved in service is in sharp contrast to the “accept-our-word-for-it” attitude of the sponsors of new pipe materials. Permanently recorded in many archi- tects’ and engineers’ experience is the longer life and greater economy of

. Triy : ~ —H

5 iF (Left) t | | z 3 @ Byers Genuine Wrought Iron Pipe 3 H at was specified in St. Louis Maternity a i z + + | g : Hospital for main supply, hot and cold H : water lines, exposed and concealed i a i i i | i 3 2 waste lines, vents, and drains; also 4 : 5 for heating supply and return lines.

(Above)

@ In the Evangelical Church of the Messiah, Byers Genuine Wrought Iron Pipe was specified for main supply, hot and cold water lines.

(Right)

@ Byers Genuine Wrought Iron Pipe was specified in Beaumont Medical Building for main supply, hot and cold water lines, exposed and con- cealed waste lines, vents, and drains.

wrought iron. Furthermore, each archi- tect’s and each engineer's experience is multiplied hundreds of times by the experience of his colleagues and much of this data is recorded in our files. Another aid in selecting pipe mate- rial is a study of the present or antici- pated corrosive conditions in the vari- ous services. We are familiar with such research and will gladly cooperate with you, in making a study of water, soil and gases in

PIPE WELDING FITTINGS

PLATES SHEETS - O o. TUBES -

STRUCTURALS BAR IRON

SPECIAL FORGING

RIVETS

BENDING PIPE BILLETS

CULVERTS

AMERICAN

BYERS

GENUINE WROUGHT IRON PRODUCTS

ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE,

mm fot hard-to-maintgj,, lt of “COITOSion Stug

order to determine which material is best suited for the various conditions. Send your request to our Division Offices, or write direct to our Engineer- ing Service Department in Pittsburgh. Give location of building and state briefly the services involved. No obli- gation, of course. A.M. Byers Company, Est. 1864. Pittsburgh, Boston, NewYork, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, St. Louis, Hous- ton, Seattle, San Francisco.

Specity Byers Gen- uine Wrought Iron Pipe for corrosive services and Byers Steel Pipe for your other requirements.

MAY 1937

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>n- on ive ers our ts.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

AND ARCHITECTURE

CONTENTS MAY 1937

KennetH KinGsLey STowe.t, A.1.A. itor

Henry H. Saytor, A.A. Associate Editor

WALTER SANDERS Associate Editor

Cart Maas Managing Editor

Rocer WapE SHERMAN Technical Editor

TyLer STEWART ROGERS Director of Technical Service

R. F. GarpNer General Manager

T. W. Tow er Advertising Manager

James A. Rice Western Manager

Vol. CL No. 2657

AMERICAN ARCHITECT (Trade-Mark Reg. U S Patent Office), with which is com- bined ARCHITECTURE (Reg U S Patent Office). Published monthly by Hearst Maga- zines Inc, 572 Madison Avenue, New York. Other Offices 919 N. Michigan Ave- nue, Chicago, General Motors Blidg., Detroit, 132 Newbury Street, Boston. William Ran- dolph Hearst, President, Richard E. Berlin, Executive Vice President, John Randolph Hearst, Vice President, Earle H. McHugh, Vice President, R F Gardner, Vice Presi- dent, T W Towler, Vice President; W R. Peters, Treasurer, Arthur S. Moore, Secre- tary Copyright, 1937, by Hearst Magazines Inc. Single copies, $1.00. Subscription: United States and Possessions, $3.00 per year, Canada, $4.00, Foreign, $5.00 En- tered as second class matter, April 5, 1926, at Post Office, New York, under Act of March 3, 1879 American Architect and Architecture is protected by copyright and nothing that appears in it may be ,reproduced either wholly or in partewithout special permission.

AMERICAN ARCHITECT

COVER by Norman Reeves.

TRENDS ... News... Events... Faces... neg 28S . Opinions Comments

presented in a classified and logical sequ

THIS MONTH AND NEXT.

EDUCATION TOWARD CREATIVE DESIGN. By Walter Gropius. Dr. G

first article written in Ameri 3 arly state pr phy f teaching archite HAE ar a SRR SE SAE SSR

EIGHTEEN HOUSES in various sections of the country show the work of Howe, Mar ning & Almy, Emil J. Szendy, John N. Franklin, T. Worth Jamison, Jr., M. Madeleine McCoy, John L. Volk, Hays & Simpson, E. M. Tourtelot, Preston J. Bradshaw, Miller & Martin, Barber & McMurry, Roland E. Coate, Butler & Rochester, John Normile, R Morin, Wi am Wilson Wur Ter Marstor & Mayodury and s nara J. Neut BOSTON is the subject for Architectural Overtones. The pictures were tak Semuel Chamberlein for The Americen Scone

EDITORIAL. Futures . . . Who Designs Houses?

ARCHITECTS AND AVOCATIONS.

EAST RIVER SAVINGS BANK, GOCREFELLER CENTER, eorvedl YORE. A well designed branch bank wt 3 é } , R

hard & ‘Holeoistan Archite

STANDARDS OF RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING. By Eugene W. Commery. T ing the home has become s en at s not only a utilitarian prot definite part of the aesthet heme.

THE PORTFOLIO. Residential Entrances Without P

n a series of minor architectural det

FAVORITE FEATURES. Common problems in every-day

THE DIARY. The notes and opinions of Henry Say

pe cn agreed OF THE THEME rows s an interesting analy by which Harrison & Fouilhoux, Ar heir solution § ina for The New York Wor e) Fair 1939,

BATHROOMS: UNIT CED . Series No. V... on

units that are recurrent acti TIME-SAVER STANDARDS. Bathroor svatories and dressing ms TECHNICAL DIGEST. A review of articles of interest in current

SMALL HOUSE PRACTICE.

NEW CATALOGS

TECHNIQUES.

AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

26

31

49

57 58

59

63

73 85 89

91

95

102 106 110 121 124

PROBLEM No. 7

What should the telephone

arrangements be?

By all means, built-in conduit or pipe in the walls, leading to telephone outlets at strategic points. It’s easy to include in your plans and inexpensive to install while the house is under construction. Yet it assures your customers of real telephone convenience over the years—avoids exposed wiring and protects against certain types of service interruption. 1 An outlet in the master bedroom for protection at night and for step- CFB oS guest room for convenience and privacy to visitors. 3 An outlet in the

living room for family use. 4 C562 CI An outlet for a portable telephone in

CI An outlet for a portable telephone in the

saving during the day. 2

the basement game room to save stair climbing during recreation hours.

Ae PHONI Ker ONE £% )

Sy > THIS IS A SUGGESTED APPROACH TO A TYPICAL PROBLEM. OUR ENGINEERS WILL HELP Fy \ YOU DEVELOP EFFICIENT, ECONOMICAL CONDUIT LAYOUTS. NO CHARGE. CALL YOUR \ gy \Q> Ae LOCAL TELEPHONE OFFICE AND ASK FOR ‘‘ARCHITECTS’ AND BUILDERS’ SERVICE.’’ ree 4 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

XUM

XUM

; Tae ORIGINAL LIGHT ALUMINUM OR BRONZE WINDOW eece

OVARY 4 . \Y y ) Ke:

SEALAIR

WINDOWS

4

*

FURNISHED IN A VARIETY OF STANDARD MUNTIN ARRANGEMENTS FOR EVERY TYPE OF HOME

Mia years of experience in building fine rustless metal SEALAIR Windows for public and private buildings, large resi- dences, post offices, monumental structures and other important projects, preceded the development and introduction of the Kaw- neer LIGHT SEALAIR WINDOW .. . the first light

aluminum or bronze window for the average home!

WRITE TMA Ieaiae = lhat's why LIGHT SEALAIR WINDOWS are so DATA simple in design and construction, so easy to in-

stall and reglaze, so smooth in action at all times,

so exceptionally weathertight. Sturdily and accu- rately fabricated of solid aluminum or bronze, these practical, modern, double-hung windows offer common-sense advantages

it TT no architect, builder, or home-owner can afford to overlook.

VWVride THE KAWNEER COMPANY, DEPT. A, NILES, MICHIGAN.

9 FF Ap

ES BRANCHES: BERKELEY, CALIF., AND NEW YORK CITY. OTHER PRODUCTS: STORE FRONTS, DOORS, ARCHITECTURAL METAL WORK. AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937 5

NEWS e EVENTS e FACTS e FACES T R E N D S IDEAS e OPINIONS e COMMENTS

LEGISLATION THE UNITED STATES |S, AFTER ALL, A FRIENDLY SORT OF PLACE. ith few exceptions, it probably depends as much as any other corner of the world on the “neighborhood.” Changes, even those for the better, frequently cause a nostalgia akin to the inevitable that “things are not what they were when we However, it is only when

discovery

were young.” the wound touches an economic spot that we are prone to do anything about it; and it is just such a realization that lies behind the proposed legislation of the National Association of Real Estate Boards. More than two years of study and conference have led to the drafting of an Act designed to aid in solving one of the most difficult problems of present- day city growth and land use, that of stopping “blight.”

As time undesirable changes may crop up to change the char- acter of a neighborhood. More important, they affect the security of home owner- ship, and the value of land, especially in home Billboards, garages, and stores tend to discourage home owners. They move away as quickly as possible, and the result is a blight, threatening mil- lions of invested wealth.

The suggested state Neighborhood Im- provement Act would provide communi- ties with a means of protecting them- it would also furnish them with which no present legal

goes by, many

areas.

selves ; an instrument machinery provides, namely, a means for gradual elimination of uses that are un- desirable in any area.

In a foreword to the Act, Herbert U. Nelson, Secretary of the National Asso- ciation of Real Estate Boards, says, “The proposal for a Neighborhood Improve- ment Act seeks to attack this problem of blight at the most critical point. A neigh- borhood is an entity hard to define but easily understood. It is not too large to be beyond comprehension of the common man. Everyone is interested in his own neighborhood. The neighborhood must, therefore, be the unit upon which effec- tive city planning is built.”

Harland Bartholomew of St. city planning consultant to the National Association of Real Estate Boards, as- sisted in the formulation of the Act. Frank Watson, of Purdue University, in charge of Purdue’s unique housing ex- periments, was the draftsman. The pro- posed plan would work through the usual and existing machinery of city govern- ment and city planning. Hence, it would correlate the neighborhood action and planning with the general framework of the city plan. In addition, it would open a way by which property owners might initiate action should the city through its present general machinery fail to act.

Louis,

—ENCOMIUM— Our Highest Praise To WALTER GROPIUS

Because, he has helped to un- tangle a world of thought in which creative ability and manu- facturing efficiency have been re- volving in separate spheres, car- | ing little and knowing less about each other. | : application of his the- | ory that, “the essential factor in | architectural education is the | unity of its entire structure in all

| : < ; | stages of development,” has with-- | stood the test of practical applica- | tion. | ..... his expressed feeling | that it is our obligation to work | not only for our own good, but | to help clear the road for future | generations, indicates an unself- ish people. | ... his work reflects the simplicity and directness that can result only from exhaustive knowledge and unhampered | thinking.

..... his influence will be | felt in the development of many allied arts—particularly those of | form—as well as in American |

|| Architecture.

Final power of determination is left with the city authority.

Principal provisions of the Act are:

1. It provides for the definition and bounding of neighborhood areas by the city planning body with the approval of the governing body of the city. As al- ready noted, provision is also made for such definition and bounding by action of a sufficient percentage of the property owners within the area, in case the city planning body or the city’s governing body fails or refuses to act.

2. It sets forth the machinery for the creation of a neighborhood plan, and machinery for official adoption of the plan.

A neighborhood plan as contemplated in the Act might provide for:

(a) Zoning or rezoning.

(b) Improvement and alteration of major and minor streets.

(c) Creation of parks, playgrounds, and public recreational facilities.

(d) Neighborhood planting and landscaping.

(e) Location of all public utilities.

(f) Building restrictions.

(g) Progressive elimination of non- conforming uses.

3. It provides for appeal to the courts

AMERICAN

ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE,

by any property owner who thinks he is adversely affected.

4. It calls for execution of the pla 1 on the same basis as if it were originally adopted by the city ina regular ordinance,

5. It gives legal status to neighbor- which ized enables property owners to deal as a unit with the city authorities.

The National Association of Real Estate Boards has placed copies of the plan in the hands of member boards over the country for study and action. In Mis- souri a bill embodying the plan has al- ready been introduced and similar action is under way in several other states.

GOVERNMENT THE GOVERNMENT'S LATEST EXPERIMENT IN LOW COST HOUSING has led to the that mud is the material to use if you want a house that will last longer, be cooler in summer, warmer in winter, and much cheaper than the or- dinary frame bungalow.

Seven mud houses were recently built under the supervision of Thomas Hibben, R. A., as part of the New Deal’s commun- ity housing project at Gardendale, Ala. The cost of a “rammed earth”

hood associations may be organ-

conclusion

house is estimated at about three-fourths of that for a frame house of the same size. One of the greatest advantages comes from the fact that the usual building formula wherein materials account for about 70 per cent of the cost, is almost completely reversed. In this case, labor amounted to roughly 65 per cent of the cost, with materials only 35 per cent. The building process is simple, and the houses when finished resemble the adobe houses of the Southwest.

SECURITIES ISSUED BY FEDERAL AGENCIES or by organizations formed at the instance of the Federal Government have been in- creasing in number, value, and importance in recent years, and another group is about to make its appearance. The Fed- eral Home Loan banks will announce soon an issue of debentures which will mark the first public financing for the twelve regional institutions devoted to sound and economical home financing. If expectations are realized, these banks will float debentures and bonds in growing amounts which may eventually rival the flotations of the Federal Land Banks. John H. Fahey, chairman of the Fed- eral Home Loan Bank Board, has pro- vided a brief description of the nature and function of the twelve member banks. “It took years of debate,” says Mr. Fa- hey, “before the country appreciated fully the necessity for the Federal Reserve System, and many conflicts of opinion had to be resolved before its creation was possible. It has taken an even (Continued on page 10)

longer

MAY 1937

XUM

Real

the over Mis- > al- tion

MENT » the il to last er in > OF-

built bben, mun- Ala. se is that ne of 1 the mula it 70 letely inted with Iding when f the

NCIES tance n in- tance Ip is Fed- yunce will - the d to o, If ; will wing 1 the

>. Fed- pro- ature anks. _ Fa- fully serve inion . was

mger

1937

XUM

the RIGHT EQUIPMENT plus LONG EXPERIENCE

Who knows most about air conditioning? The logical answer is: those few companies which specialize entirely in this particular field . . . those com- panies to whom air condition- ing is “bread and butter’’ busi- ness—not a side line. Such an organization is Clarage Fan.

Clarage is expert in air conditioning because Clarage designs, builds and markets nothing but air handling and conditioning equip- ment.

At Clarage Fan, for al- most a quarter century, all research and development, every facility and resource have been directed toward improvements in methods and

apparatus for handling (G 2

and conditioning air more efficiently.

You are not experiment- ing when you come to Clar- age. From the varied line of units and systems bearing the Clarage name can be chosen equipment to meet your re- quirements exactly. From the wealth of experience gained on almost every con- ceivable type of conditioning installation will come valuable assistance and suggestions to make your job effective at lowest possible cost.

Regardless of kind or size, a Clarage installa- tion produces results—and produces those results eco- nomically.

Your inquiry is invited.

CLARAGE FAN COMPANY

Kalamazoo . Michigan

Sales Offices in All Principal Cities

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

NEW ! —MULTITHERMS

Compact units for cooling, cooling and heating, or com- plete air conditioning. Ideal for stores, offices, theatres, res- taurants, etc. 968 different sizes and arrangements. Easily installed. Write for Bulletin 107.

NEW !—TYPE W FANS

Designed for highly efficient performance at high operating speeds, making for utmost economy when direct motor driven. Suitable for all types of ventilation and air condition- ing services. Very quiet per- formance. Offered in a wide range of sizes. Write for Bul- letin 112.

Clarage also builds a com- plete line of air washers in five types—also many other condi- tioning units.

“..eAND WIRED FOR FIFTY

YEARS TO COME...” SAYS ——| Oren WW. (OOF

JAMES W. KIRST, ARCHITECT YONKERS, NEW YORK

ee My client, Richard M. Ludlow, President of New Castle Homes, Inc., Seven Bridges, Chappaqua, demanded a house equipped with a modern G-E Radial Wiring System; a complete General Electric kitchen—Dishwasher, Range, Disposall Unit, and refrigerator—and a G-E Oil Furnace... and all to come within a total cost of $8,900.”

‘And here,’ said Mr. Ludlow, ‘comes the joker this house must also have a living room 22! x 13'6"; a thirteen foot dining room; a lavatory off the entrance hall; two large twin bed chambers, and and the

SECOND FLOOR

= a ar ame one smaller one, two baths; a maid’s room and bath

Kitene Poach

house must be completely insulated.’

vig Ra . a “After days of figuring we found that all this was actually possible. ; g g y} “> re [ am especially enthusiastic about the Radial Wiring System used FIRST FLOOR in this house. It assures freedom from blown-out fuses and gives

us a house that’s wired for fifty years to come.”

(signed) James W. Kirst

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

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G-E RADIAL WIRING

is planned to make electricity easy and economical to use X now and in the future —no

voltage will be lost by small

wires or long runs.

PLANNED WIRING FOR BETTER LIVING

Wrres THIS HOME, modern electrical wiring assures comfortable and convenient living, now and in the future. Lights burn brightly and appliances operate properly. Planned wiring the G-E Radial Wiring System is installed, providing adequacy in wire sizes, number of circuits, switches and convenience outlets.

Broad electrical highways, which don't give current a chance to loiter, run directly to small circuit breakers on the first and second floors. Here circuits are controlled conveniently no fuses to be replaced in the basement. Current has only a short distance to go after it leaves these circuit breakers and the radiating wires over which it travels to outlets aren’t crowded. Electric lamps and appliances receive the full amount of current for which they were designed.

For modern homes, designed for electri- cal living, architects, more and more, are specifying the planned adequacy of the G-E Radial Wiring System.

HERE’S HELP FOR BUSY ARCHITECTS

The General Electric Home Bureau was organized to serve architects— and their clients with technical advice and assis- tance on all home-electrification problems. We will check your plans from an electrical

point of view—prepare wiring and heating specifications scientific lighting plans -

kitchen schemes and Radial Wiring lay- outs. We can supply you with a wealth of valuable data and information on new elec- trical materials, methods, and equipment. Why not give us a chance to help you on your next job. Address: The General Elec- tric Home Bureau, 570 Lexington Avenue,

New York.

This is the General Electric Oil Furnace which has upset all previous ideas about oil heating. Due to the exclusive “Econo-Mist” Inverted Flame, it pro-

vides more heat—uses less oil.

» &

be om

Scientific lighting helps prevent eyestrain. The occupants of this house will enjoy the sight saving benefits of genuine MAZDA lamps made by General Electric . . . the kind that stay bright longer.

A G-E Kitchen can be planned all at once or added to unit by unit. Equipment shown includes G-E Sink with Dis- posall unit; G-E Dishwasher; G-E Range; and G-E Re- frigerator.

Just Published! A new book on Radial Wiring... the most forward step in the planning of the modern home. Mail the coupon for your free copy.

GENERAL ELECTRIC Co. Home Bureau, 570 Lexington Ave., N.Y.

Please send me vour new “Radial Wiring” book. Name

Address

Ric YEARS A HEAD!

GENERAL @ ELECTRIC

RESE ARC H8 K E E P

GENERAL

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

NEWS e EVENTS e FACTS e FACES T R E N D S IDEAS e OPINIONS e COMMENTS

»>HOTOS: BOIRON

Belonging to the "Believe it or not' class are these pictures of the Palace of Versailles. The picture above is of the Palace illuminated by floodlighting, while that below is the same photograph with a montage daytime sky effect.

time for us to learn that sound financial and economic stability in the nation does not depend entirely upon a ‘fully pro- tected commercial banking system, but that it is equally important to provide adequate reserve facilities in the field of mortgage finance.”

Under the law, the Federal Home Loan Banks constitute a true reserve system of home mortgage finance. The institu- tions do not lend money to individual bor- rowers, but only to such organizations as building and loan associations, co-opera- tive banks, homestead associations, insur- ance companies, and savings banks. The use of funds is carefully controlled and

directed toward the aim of constructing and improving small homes.

Operating to date entirely with funds supplied by the United States Treasury, the twelve banks have accomplished much toward organization of home mortgage financing machinery. Building and loan associations have been most ready to take advantage of the new facilities, and mem- ber institutions already number 3,780, with combined assets of more than $3,- 300,000,000. The twelve banks them- selves, in slightly more than four years

of operations have extended advances of

$294,388,000, of which $152,697,000 has been repaid.

PRESTON DELANO, GOVERNOR OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK _ SYSTEM, recently urged the elimination of ten- dencies toward boom psychology in the home-building industry and in home fi- nancing fields. His remarks that, “the nation needs a steady and progressive ex- pansion of housing facilities, entirely sep- arated from any thoughts of new boom— and depressions,” were prompted by re- ports from every section of the country, indicating that this year would set a new home-building record.

Presidents of the twelve regional FHL Banks report, that the demand for home financing is running anywhere from 50 to 400 per cent greater than it was a

year ago.

CONSTRUCTION WITH STRIKES TO THE RIGHT OF US, AND STRIKES TO THE LEFT OF US, it might be

well to pause for a moment and consider the building trades. Mr. A. C. formerly chief engineer of the FHA, and

Shire,

technical editor of Architectural Forum, recently discussed one phase of this in the Annals of the American Academy of Social Science. He Says of Labor: “The Federated Engineering Societies’ study blames labor for 21 per cent of the waste in building. ably higher, even for unskilled workers,

Daily wages are consider-

than those in the manufacturing indus- tries. Real wages, however, are not near- ly so high as the daily wage, because of irregularity of employment. Strong labor organizations, effective in obtaining high wage scales, have also been ef- fective in setting up practices which add considerably to the cost of building.

In many cases limitations on work have been carried to ridiculous Skilled men insist on doing work which could be done as well, and more economi- cally, by their helpers or unskilled labor.

extremes.

Cases are not rare where it has been nec- essary to pay hoisting engineers from a quarter to a full day’s wages for starting, occasionally oiling, and stopping a gaso- line-driven pump. Electricians have been paid overtime for throwing a_ switch which turns on or off temporary light- ing for a building operation. The limita- tions on the work which any one man can perform, while requiring the employ- ment of more men, reduces the amount of work available to each man, and in- creases the uncertainty of employment. Realizing this, the nen have no incen- tive to do good or speedy work. Men coming on the job require time to get ‘the lay of the land’, and work inefficient- ly until they are familiar with the par- ticular building operation on hand.”

It appears from this, and similar in-

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY

new

‘HL ome 1 50

rum, Ss in ly of ‘The tudy

vaste ider- kers,

1dus-

which makes

abor it ve Se - Ue ed fh a ae all the Difference add Al} § ov : j

What is it which makes some one Company in

have SB] f Ut We" re os }' et my oy tT! an industry stand out above all others? Is it mes. hich

engineering skill? Research facilities? Or is it exacting manufacturing standards? One of these = features may distinguish the others in the in- —« dustry, but never the recognized leader. Rather, a : the leader has them all. This leadership is the ting, final result of a policy which accepts nothing raso- less than the best engineering, research and been vitch ight- THE HERMAN NELSON CORPORATION ; E General Office and Factories at Moline, Illinois

= p Sales and Service Offices in all Principal Cities

manufacturing standards obtainable.

ploy- 1ount | in- nent. icen- Men » get “ient- parf-

r in-

WORK-SAVERS

Each door and window should be given a number on the working drawings because it will save time in referring to any par- ticular one in specifications, in details, and in correspondence after the job gets under way. If this is not done both the millwork and hardware schedules become wordy, in- definite and inefficient listings, causing no end of difficulty in checking the delivery of the items, and still more in seeing that each unit is fitted in its intended location. In allotting numbers it is advisable to start with the main entrance or one corner of the building, and then continue from room to room in a methodical manner.

Geratp K. GEERLINGS.

12

A SINGLE comprehensive perspective is usually more valuable to a client than a number of separate elevations. Even though it be sketchily presented such a drawing is well worth doing. As you know, a single comprehensive pencil is all-important to the architect and draftsman, for one which can draw light, thin lines, as well as black, heavy ones, is more valuable than a range of pencils which must be coaxed into action in order to produce a variety of values. The sketch above is a case in point, having been entirely drawn with a 2B Microtomic Van Dyke Pencil on tracing paper at the repro- duced size. The Microtomic Pencils are graded in 18 degrees.

MICROTOMIC VAN DYKE PENCIL << EBERHARD FABER <*>

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

XUM

ever

A PENNY FOR MAINTENANCE

WHERE YOU SPECIFY “JOINED BY WELDING”

XUM

\ pe can be sure that your client will have a

piping system that is permanently leakproof

if you specify oxy-acetylene welding as the method for joining the pipe. Air conditioning ducts, also,

can be made “‘jointless”” by welding.

Oxy-acetylene welds have the full strength of

the pipe or sheet metal. Welds take up less space than any other type of joint, look neater and involve no additional cost or time for construc-

tion. Pipe and ducts of all sizes and of any metal

can be joined by the oxy-acetylene welding process.

Linde engineers, from their welding experience on many millions of feet of building pipe, have prepared technical data especially for those in- terested in designing and specifying “Piping Ask the Linde Office in

your city for complete details before writing

Joined by Welding.”

specifications. The Linde Air Products Company, Unit of Union Carbide and Carbon Corporation,

New York and Principal Cities.

LINDE OXYCEN © PREST-O-LITE ACETYLENE © OXWELO APPARATUS AND SUPPLIES FRO m

Everything for Oxy Acetylene Velding and Cutting |

PRODUCTS OF UNITS OF

UNION CARBIDE AND CARBON CORPORATION

LUTE sxiee cxnsice

AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY

1937 13

agg

On “i = . a aia ali ut

-.-the architect specified J-M “Shake” Textured Asbestos Shingles... fireproof, imperishable, and weather-resistant...

Not until you actually touch these Johns-Manville Asbestos Shingles, do you realize they are not made of wood. That’s how faithfully they reproduce the charm and texture of old, hand- split “shakes”!

Johns-Manville has recaptured this traditional beauty in a modern ma- terial . . . asbestos-cement. By the very nature of this composition, J-M Asbestos Shingles cannot burn, rot or wear out, and they require no paint to preserve their lasting charm. Throughout the years, their virtual freedom from maintenance will prove an important factor in minimizing upkeep on this house.

If you wish detailed information about any Johns-Manville Building Materials, write Johns-Manville, 22 K. 40th Street, New York City.

*

| | GIVE SS te OF TRIPLE INSULATION. | Johns-Manville

The J-M Asbestos Shingles described above are one of the materials

coed ia. Triple-Ineuloted Howes. This ts a J-M development de- JM signed to permanently protect homes against fire, weather and ;

wear. It assures owners of maximum all-weather comfort, minimum .

» maintenance and fuel bills. Triple Insulation involves no new or 4: BUILDING untried methods. It is adaptable to any type of house design. j x N Simply specify: J-M Asbestos Roofing and Siding Shingles; Ful-Thik MATERIALS Super Batts of J-M Rock Wool for insulating attics and sidewalls; Asbestos Roofing and Siding Shingles + Dec- J-M Steeltex, the reinforcing plaster base for walls and ceilings. orative Asbestos Wall Boards « Insulating

Boards « Home Insulation «+ Steeltex « As-

phalt Tile Flooring, Acoustical Material, ete.

14 AMERICAN ARCHITECT AND ARCHITECTURE, MAY 1937

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